Thursday, June 10, 2010

Full Article: The never ending dispute over India –China-Pakistan

It goes back to 1912 when the Chinese republic of  Sun-Yat sen was born. Sir Arthur McMahon in Simla meet 1914 drew a line from Himalayan peeks covering Bhutan and Burma. However the Chinese Republic and the government have been in the denial mode ever since the birth of McMahon line. Although China has 14 other border dispute issues over land and sea with neighbors they hold history in retrospect.

Meantime post independence the states of Jammu and Kashmir would have gone to either country however the Maharaja of J&K acceded it to India for military aid since there was an armed revolt with Muslim peasantry.

Post 1962 war China captured Aksai Chin in the north eastern section of Ladakh district and portion of Arunachal Pradesh (originally it was eastern portion of British Designation North-East Frontier Agency). However the PRC withdrew itself to the Line of Actual Control to the proximity of McMahon line. Again in 1986-87 their forces clashed over Chu Valley and dispute resurfaced in worse way the coming year. And if though UN intervention was established India Pakistan went on war in 1965 over Kashmir. In 1971 India intervened under Indira Gandhi’s Leadership in Pakistan’s civil war and freed Bangladesh. We experienced another battle over LOC in 1990. Even after the Simla accord in 1972 the lines were never demarcated in Siachin Glacier, near the Chinese frontier and we have constant infiltration along the entire cease fire line.

During the fallout of the 1962 Indo –China war there were major questions raised in the belief of nonalignment movement and for the first time Jawaharlal Nehru felt cornered by the opponents. The next question was the state of India’s asphyxiated army who were not adapted to the kind of warfare and of high altitudes.

Although many believe that China’s overall aspiration was to claim till Calcutta and hence establish an Asian Communist subcontinent and crush the belief that Asians could welcome the democratic and imperialistic system and shift the power base to east. To add to it China claims Tibet all the time however they have never been able to establish total control over it. The McMahon line demarcated the borders between then Britain’s imperial region and Tibet. Although the British and Tibetan representatives approved of the line Chinese representatives were in refusal. The line moved the British control substantially towards north and the Chinese claimed the territory to the border of the plain of Assam.

Due to the geographical landscape and dense forest the different tribes living in five river valley region had less or no communication and hence developed their own dialects.

If we take a brief look back , the McMahon Line was suppose to be published in 1937 edition of Aitchison’s Collection of Treaties however the North-East Frontier Agency (NEFA) was established finally in 1954. Chou En-lai on November 7, 1957 proposed the troops on both ends to be withdrawn twenty kilometers from line which however thawed in 1962 War. China still claims Arunchal Pradesh and Beijing states it does not recognize AP. For China McMahon line was a symbolist imperial aggression and they do not hold it. Rich in natural resources the disputed area of Arunachal Pradesh is six times of Beijing. Currently it is the only major conflict between two nations.

Back in 1963,“Boundary Agreement “, Pakistan ceded over 5000 sq. kms of  Pakistan Occupied Kashmir to China which India claims is part of Indian Territory.  In 1987 Sino-Pakistani protocol made the demarcation of their boundaries formal. The boundary ends at Karakoram pass hence establishing Pakistan’s acceptance to Chinese Sovereignty over Aksai Chin. 

If the war happens this would be in the list of issues and considering Indian Government’s statement to consider China a potential threat the lurking feeling of war never dies between the two nations. Meantime while India and Pakistan constantly approach to resolve their dispute over talk, it was thawed with recent nuclear tests by the two nations. Although comparison of the military camps of the nation is again a topic of its own there are often bilateral discussions held to resolve this matter peacefully.

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